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**Physics 232. Heat, Sound, and Light**

Equations for Exam II - oscillations and waves

Constants, such as values for , bulk moduli, will be provided
as needed.

**15.1 ** Force on a mass on a spring

**15.6**
Equation of motion for mass on a spring

**15.9**
Angular frequency for mass on a spring

**15.10-14**
Relations between frequencies and periods.
**15.15**
Velocity of mass on a spring

**15.16**
Acceleration of mass on a spring

**15.21**
Total energy of a simple harmonic oscillator

**15.26**
Period of a simple pendulum

**16-1 **
Equation for travelling wave
(To right)

(To left)

**16.5**
Wave function for travelling sinusoidal wave:

where and are the spatial and angular frequency
**or...
** y(x,t) = A sin [2*pi(x/lambda - t/T)]

where and are the spatial and temporal periods.

**16.12**
``Golden rule" of waves:

**16.14**
Transverse speed of sinusoidal wave on string

**16.15**
Transverse acceleration of sinusoidal wave on string

**16.18**
Speed of a wave on a string

where is the tension, and is the linear mass density of string
**16.-**
Kinetic energy stored in 1 of a wave on a string

**16.20**
Total energy stored in 1 of a wave on a string

**16.21**
Power of sinusoidal wave on string (energy per period T)

**17.1**
Speed of sound in medium with bulk modulus
and density

**17.1b**
Speed of sound in air as a function of temperature

**17.2**
If the displacement of air elements as sound passes is given by

**17.3**
then the variation in pressure is given by

**17.4**
Maximum pressure amplitude for the above wave

**17.-**
Power transmitted by a sound wave through area A

**17.5**
Intensity of a sinusoidal sound wave

**17.-**
Intensity of a sinusoidal sound wave

**17.6**
Intensity of a sinusoidal sound wave (in terms of pressure ampl)

**17.7**
Inverse square law: intensity as function of distance from source

**17.8**
Sound level in decibels

**17.13**
Doppler shifted frequency,

where is the frequency at the source, is sound speed,
is the observer's speed (negative if away from source),
and is the source speed (negative if away from observer).

**18.-**
Superposition principle

**18.-**
Superposition of two sinusoidal waves travelling to the right

where is the amplitude of both waves, is the phase shift between the two waves

**18.2**
Interference conditions for path length difference
- Constructive:

- Destructive:

- where

**18.3**
Standing wave - sum of two identical waves travelling in opposite directions

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Jason Pinkney
2011-04-21