Common Organic Solvents: Table of Properties1,2,3

Solvent formula MW boiling
point
(°C)
melting
point
(°C)
density
(g/mL)
solubility
in water
(g/100g)
Dielectric
Constant3,4
flash
point
(oC)
acetic acid C2H4O2 60.05 118 16.6 1.049 Miscible 6.15 39
acetone C3H6O 58.08 56.2 -94.3 0.786 Miscible 20.7(25) -18
acetonitrile C2H3N 41.05 81.6 -46 0.786 Miscible 37.5 6
benzene C6H6 78.11 80.1 5.5 0.879 0.18 2.28 -11
1-butanol C4H10O 74.12 117.6 -89.5 0.81 6.3 17.8 35
2-butanol C4H10O 74.12 98 -115 0.808 15 15.8(25) 26
2-butanone C4H8O 72.11 79.6 -86.3 0.805 25.6 18.5 -7
t-butyl alcohol C4H10O 74.12 82.2 25.5 0.786 Miscible 12.5 11
carbon tetrachloride CCl4 153.82 76.7 -22.4 1.594 0.08 2.24 --
chlorobenzene C6H5Cl 112.56 131.7 -45.6 1.1066 0.05 5.69 29
chloroform CHCl3 119.38 61.7 -63.7 1.498 0.795 4.81 --
cyclohexane C6H12 84.16 80.7 6.6 0.779 <0.1 2.02 -20
1,2-dichloroethane C2H4Cl2 98.96 83.5 -35.3 1.245 0.861 10.42 13
diethyl ether C4H10O 74.12 34.6 -116.3 0.713 7.5 4.34 -45
diethylene glycol C4H10O3 106.12 245 -10 1.118 10 31.7 143
diglyme (diethylene glycol
dimethyl ether)
C6H14O3 134.17 162 -68 0.943 Miscible 7.23 67
1,2-dimethoxy-
ethane (glyme, DME)
C4H10O2 90.12 85 -58 0.868 Miscible 7.2 -6
dimethylether C2H6O 46.07 -22 -138.5 NA NA NA -41
dimethyl-
formamide (DMF)
C3H7NO 73.09 153 -61 0.944 Miscible 36.7 58
dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) C2H6OS 78.13 189 18.4 1.092 25.3 47 95
dioxane C4H8O2 88.11 101.1 11.8 1.033 Miscible 2.21(25) 12
ethanol C2H6O 46.07 78.5 -114.1 0.789 Miscible 24.6 13
ethyl acetate C4H8O2 88.11 77 -83.6 0.895 8.7 6(25) -4
ethylene glycol C2H6O2 62.07 195 -13 1.115 Miscible 37.7 111
glycerin C3H8O3 92.09 290 17.8 1.261 Miscible 42.5 160
heptane C7H16 100.20 98 -90.6 0.684 0.01 1.92 -4
Hexamethylphosphoramide
(HMPA)
C6H18N3OP 179.20 232.5 7.2 1.03 Miscible 31.3 105
Hexamethylphosphorous
triamide (HMPT)
C6H18N3P 163.20 150 -44 0.898 Miscible ?? 26
hexane C6H14 86.18 69 -95 0.659 0.014 1.89 -22
methanol CH4O 32.04 64.6 -98 0.791 Miscible 32.6(25) 12
methyl t-butyl
ether (MTBE)
C5H12O 88.15 55.2 -109 0.741 5.1 ?? -28
methylene chloride CH2Cl2 84.93 39.8 -96.7 1.326 1.32 9.08 1.6
N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone
(NMP)
CH5H9NO 99.13 202 -24 1.033 10 32 91
nitromethane CH3NO2 61.04 101.2 -29 1.382 9.50 35.9 35
pentane C5H12 72.15 36.1 -129.7 0.626 0.04 1.84 -49
Petroleum ether (ligroine) -- -- 30-60 -40 0.656 -- -- -30
1-propanol C3H8O 88.15 97 -126 0.803 Miscible 20.1(25) 15
2-propanol C3H8O 88.15 82.4 -88.5 0.785 Miscible 18.3(25) 12
pyridine C5H5N 79.10 115.2 -41.6 0.982 Miscible 12.3(25) 17
tetrahydrofuran (THF) C4H8O 72.11 66 -108.4 0.886 30 7.6 -21
toluene C7H8 92.14 110.6 -93 0.867 0.05 2.38(25) 4
triethyl amine C6H15N 101.19 88.9 -114.7 0.728 0.02 2.4 -11
water H2O 18.02 100.00 0.00 0.998 -- 78.54 --
water, heavy D2O 20.03 101.3 4 1.107 Miscible ?? --
o-xylene C8H10 106.17 144 -25.2 0.897 Insoluble 2.57 32
m-xylene C8H10 106.17 139.1 -47.8 0.868 Insoluble 2.37 27
p-xylene C8H10 106.17 138.4 13.3 0.861 Insoluble 2.27 27

Notes:

  1. This table was orginally from: Prof. Murov's Orgsoltab, which was edited and reposted by Erowid
  2. You can find more detailed information (Health & Safety, Physical, Regulatory, Environmental) on various organic solvents from NCMS
  3. The values in the table above were obtained from ChemFinder Web Server, the CRC, or Vogel's Practical Organic Chemistry (5th ed.).
  4. T = 20 °C unless specified otherwise.
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Questions or Comments? Please Contact:
Brian J. Myers
Web Master, Division of Organic Chemistry, ACS

This Page was Updated: Tuesday, November 24, 2009